CII: Making Zero Accidents a Reality

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Summary Statement

A presentation of the Construction Industry Institute detailing research results from studies of 400 companies and 38 projects, with a focus on identifying best practices for improving safety.

“Beginning in 1999 [John] Mathis and others at CII began taking detailed looks at 38 projects with construction values of $50 million to $600 million. They found the fewest accidents on projects where top management insisted on listing safety training as a budget item, participated in investigations of recordable injuries and encouraged anonymous disclosures of unsafe behaviors. On the safest projects, every worker on site received at least four hours per month of safety training, each safety professional served no more than 50 workers and subcontractors submitted site-specific safety plans. Mathis urged wider adoption of such safety practices, in an industry in which work-related accidents kill approximately 1,000 construction workers annually.”

– David B. Rosenbaum, Craft Labor Shortage Provokes More Studies of Pay and Safety, ENR, August 20, 2001

"CII: Making Zero Accidents a Reality"
  • Construction Industry Institute (CII)
  • Take a safety journey
  • Review the research methodology
  • Reveal best practices identified
  • Review and discuss key findings
  • Summary and questions
Project Team 160 - Committee Members

Bill Alfera
FPL Energy, Inc.

Alan R. Burton
Cianbro Corporation

Mike Cain
Lockwood Greene

Dennis Cobb
E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc.

Pual DeForge
Ontario Power Generation

John A. Gambatese
Oregon State University

Tom hardesty
Celanese Acetate

Jimmie W. Hinze
University of Florida

Scott Johnson
Tyco/Grinnel Fire Protection

Randy Marconnet
Watkins Engineering & Constructors, Inc,

Bill W. Poppell
Florida Power & Light Company

Mike F. Schwimmer
Chevron U.S.A., Inc.

Gary L. Wilson

P.D. Frey
Austin Industries

Construction Industry Institute

A consortium of leading owners, contractors, suppliers, and academia who are interested in improving the constructed project and the capital investment process.

CII Mission

To improve the safety, quality, schedule, and cost effectiveness of its members through research and implementation support for the purpose of providing a competitive advantage to its members in the global marketplace.

Owner Members
  • Exxon
  • Chevron
  • Shell
  • BP/Amoco
  • Dupont
  • Conoco
  • Citgo
  • Texaco
  • Phillips
  • Celanese
  • Intel
  • General Motors
  • Alcoa
  • Reliant Energy
  • Nasa
  • TVA
  • Ontario Power
  • U.S. Steel
CII Contractor Members
  • ABB Lummus Global
  • Bechtel Group
  • BE&K
  • Black & Veatch
  • Chicago Bridge & Iron
  • Burns and Roe
  • The Parsons Corp.
  • Rust Contractors
  • Fluor Daniel
  • Foster Wheeler USA
  • Jacobs Engineering
  • Kellogg Brown & Root
  • Kiewit Construction
  • Morrison Knudsen
  • H. B. Zachry
  • Stone & Webster Engineering
  • S&B Engineers and Constructors
Participating Universities

  • Arizona State
  • Auburn
  • Cal-Berkeley
  • Carnegie Mellon
  • Cincinnati
  • Clemson
  • Colorado
  • Columbia
  • Drexel
  • Florida
  • Georgia Tech
  • Houston
  • Illinois
  • Iowa State
  • Kentucky
  • Lehigh
  • MIT
  • New Mexico
  • North Carolina State
  • North Dakota State
  • Oklahoma State
  • Oregon State
  • Penn State
  • Polytechnic University NY
  • Purdue
  • Stanford
  • SUNY-Buffalo
  • Texas
  • Texas A&M
  • Virginia Tech
  • Washington
  • Wisconsin
  • Worcester Polytechnic
  • Xavier
CII Knowledge Structure

Identifies CII:
  • Best Practices
  • Pending Best Practices
  • Informational products
Industry input critical to Best Practice selection.

All Best Practices validated.

First CII Zero Accidents Study Findings - 1993

High-impact zero accident techniques
  • Pre-project/pre-task planning for safety
  • Safety orientation and training
  • Written safety incentive programs
  • Alcohol and substance abuse programs
  • Accident/incident investigations
CII Lost Work Case Performance - 1993-1999

Graph of CII Lost Work CasePerformance - 1993-1999

CII OSHA Recordable Performance - 1993-1999

Graph of CII OSHA RecordablePerformance - 1993-1999
Zero Accidents - Revisited

What safety best practices have supported this improvement and are at the forefront of safety management today?

"Making Zero Accidents a Reality"
Nov. 1999 Project Team -160

Zero Accidents Study 2000/2001

Methodology – two studies
  • Large construction firms
  • Large construction projects

Survey of 400 largest construction firms in the US

  • Based on ENR 400 for 1999
  • 400 surveys sent – 102 responses
Detailed interviews on construction projects
  • 38 Projects
  • Types

    • Petrochemical
    • Industrial
    • Public works
    • Transportation
    • Hotel-Casino
    • Commercial buildings

  • Locations: US wide geographic area
  • Sizes: $50-$600 million
Nine Zero Accident Best Practices
  • Demonstrated management commitment
  • Staffing for safety
  • Safety planning
  • Safety training and education
  • Worker participation and involvement
  • Subcontractor management
  • Recognition and rewards
  • Accident/Incident reporting and investigations
  • Drug and alcohol testing
Best Practice Results

Over 30 key findings revealed significant lower recordable injury rates with companies utilizing these best practices.

Demonstrated Management Commitment
  • Safety mission statements
  • Project-specific newsletters
  • Top Management involved in accident/incident investigations of recordable and lost time injuries
  • Top Management personally involved in reviewing safety performance reports
  • Senior field management

    • Participation in field safety inspections
    • Participation in orientation
Demonstrated Management Commitment

Top management participated in investigation of recordable injuries

Graph: Majority 50% or less

Top management participated in investigation of lost time injuries

 Graph: Majority 50% or less
Company president/senior management reviews safety performance report

 Graph: Majority No
Home office safety inspections on the project

 Graph: Majority Other
Corporate accident report summary provided to all the jobs?

 Graph: Majority yes
Safety Staffing

People, methods, resources, and key impacts
  • Adequate staffing
  • Safety involved in project meetings
  • Safety included in cost,scheduling, and quality reports
Safety professionals per 50 workers

 Graph: Majority Over 50
View of safety personnel by other workers on the site

 Graph: Majority Negative
Who does the safety representative report to?

 Graph: Majority Line/Project
Safety Planning

Pre-project and pre-task planning-key impacts
  • Job hazard analysis
  • Constructability reviews
  • Pre-task planning
  • Site-specific safety programs
Does the project have a site-specific safety program?

 Graph: Majority No
Pre-task meetings held?

 Graph: Majority No
Safety Training and Education
  • New worker safety orientation
  • Follow-up safety training
  • Tool box safety meetings
Is Safety Training a line item within the budget?

 Graph: Majority No
Every Worker on site receive a formal standard orientation

 Graph: Majority Informal
Additional monthly training for employees

 Graph: Majority Up to 4hrs
What day toolbox safety meetings held

 Graph: Majority monday
Worker Involvement and Participation
  • Employee/Involvement Safety Teams
  • Worker-to-worker observation process
  • Worker perception surveys
Are safety observers used on the projects?

 Graph: Majority No
Workers trained and utilized for worker-to-worker observation?

 Graph: Majority No
Do management and supervisory personnel receive behavior overview training?

 Graph: Majority No
Total amount of safety observation reports filed on the project

 Graph: Majority Up to 100
Are safety perception surveys conducted on the project?

 Graph: Majority No
Recognition and Rewards

Effect of worker safety incentives
  • Individual versus crew incentives
  • Based on injuries or safe behavior
  • Frequency of awards
  • Career progression
Does a formal worker incentive/ recognition and reward program exist?

 Graph: Mostly Yes
How often are incentives given to workers?

 Graph: Majority Quarterly
Incentive based on zero injury objective?

 Graph: Majority No
Do family members attend safety dinners?

 Graph: Majority No
Field supervisors evaluated on safety?

 Graph: Majority No
Subcontractor Management
  • Site-specific safety plans
  • Site orientation
  • Sanctions for sub-standard performance
  • Frequency of safety meetings
Subs submit site-specific safety plans?

 Graph: Majority No
Subs attend a formal standard safety orientation?

 Graph: Majority No
Sanctions are imposed for non-compliance?

 Graph: Majority No
Frequency that subs hold safety meetings

 Graph: Majority Weekly

Accident/Incident Reporting and Investigation
  • Documented near misses
  • Top management involvement
Amount of near misses recorded on the project

 Graph: Majority Up to 50
Recordable injuries investigated by top management

 Graph: Majority 50% or less
Work in Progress
  • Implementation Data Sheets
  • Education Modules
  • Outage/Turnaround Research
  • Overtime Research
Best Practices
Getting to Zero Accidents
  • Demonstrated management commitment
  • Staffing for safety
  • Safety planning – pre-project/pre-task
  • Safety training and education
  • Worker involvement and participation
  • Recognition and rewards
  • Subcontractor management
  • Accident/incident reporting and investigation
  • Drug and alcohol testing
Types of Contract

Is Safety managed as a value?

 Graph: Majority Lump Sum
Concluding Remarks
  • Establish a Formal Safety Education Process for management, and the workers
  • Evaluate and measure the safety management system
  • Reward management, workers, and subcontractors for safe behavior
  • Make safety a evaluation criteria for Management and supervision
  • Engage substandard safety management, practices & conditions at all levels
  • Demonstrated management commitment is essential
  • Employee involvement is essential
  • Integrate safety early into the project development and planning process
  • Build your project safety plans based on specific scope and risk;
  • Pre-Task analysis is critical
"Even if you're on the right track, you'll get run over if you just sit there. "
Will Rogers

making zero accidents a reality