Health and Safety Hazards in Construction: Recognition, Control and Free Resources from CPWR

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CPWR - The Center for Construction Research and Training

Summary Statement

This presentation highlights the health and safety hazards in construction related to recognition and control, and offers access to free materials in an effort to reduce and eliminate these hazards.
July 2018

tanker picture cpwr logo

OH&S Webinar, June 20, 2018
Bruce Lippy, Ph.D., CIH, CSP, FAIHA
Director of Safety Research

CPWR is a nonprofit established by North America’s Building Trades Unions

  • Research, training and service to improve safety and health in construction industry
  • National consortium with over 50 organizations
  • http://www.cpwr.com

CPWR is funded by NIOSH, NIEHS and DOE
*My comments are my own and don’t reflect policies or positions of NIOSH, NIEHS or DOE

men working on worksite: Photo courtesy Miller and Long Co., Inc.
Construction is different

  • Decentralized and fragmented with mixed crafts
  • Highly cyclical
  • No fixed worksites
  • Changing environmental conditions
  • Extended hours in good weather
  • Travelers

Construction is dominated by small employers and a diverse workforce

  • 90% have <20 employees
  • About 80% have <10 employees
  • 30% of workers are Hispanic
  • 14% are employed by temp agencies
construction workers

Sources: U.S Census Bureau; CPWR Construction Chart Book 5th Edition;
CPWR 2nd Quarter 2015 Quarterly Data Report

Topics we will cover:

  1. Fatality and injury data for the construction industry
  2. Major hazards on construction sites
  3. Managing and controlling construction hazards
  4. Taking advantage of free CPWR resources

Topic One: Overview of fatalities and injuries in construction

Picture of the cover of the chart book

Rate of deaths from injuries in construction, selected countries, 2008

rate of deaths

Rate of nonfatal injuries in construction, 2008. Why is the U.S. so low?

bar graph showing the US at a rate of 1.7 per 100 workers, which is 3rd lowest out of the 10 countries presented.

Distribution of construction employment and work-related deaths from injuries, by establishment size, 2010.

pie charts
What is this saying?

 

Small firms represent a disproportionate percentage of construction fatalities (2015)

CPWR the chart book bar graph shows employment fatalities percentage. Larger facilities have less fatalities

CPWR The Chart Book 2018

Distribution of fatal injuries in construction, by event, 2011-2013 total

pie chart regarding fatalities

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011-2013 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.
Numbers are from the online CFOI database.

 

Leading causes of work-related deaths, construction, 1992-2015

line graph showing the highest number of deaths being fall deaths, which dipped low between 2007 and 2010, and then had steadily climbed to more than the median, other causes being consistent.

 

Understanding the pattern of construction employment in the US is critical for interpreting S&H data, (BLS data 2003-2016)

bar chart

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2003-2016 Current Population Survey.
Calculations by the authors.

See any pattern in fatalities? (BLS)

bar chart showing drop in fatalities after the institution of revised OIICS

Note: In 2011, the CFOI switched to OIICS version 2.01 which categorizes slips, trips, and falls together.
In previous years, slips and trips were categorized elsewhere.
* Other fatalities are fatalities from all causes except falls.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2003-2015 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.
Numbers were from the online CFOI database.

Number of fatal work injuries-
Construction had the most fatalities in 2016, although not the highest rate

BLS information in bar chart

U.S. BLS, Current Population Survey, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 2017.

The 10 occupations with highest fatal injury counts accounted for 39% of all fatal injuries in 2016

The 10 occupations bar chart with tractor drivers and heavy machinery with the most transportation incidents and other events of fatal injury.

U.S. BLS, Current Population Survey, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 2017.

Rate of fatalities in construction has gone down dramatically for Hispanic workers (1992-2010)

bar graphs

Except for the recent rate of fatal falls to a lower level (2011-2015, BLS)

line chart showing hispanic deaths consistently higher than white or all othrs'

Source: Numbers were obtained from the BLS through special requests. Numbers of FTEs were estimated using the Current Population Survey. Calculations by the authors. The views expressed here do not necessarily reflect the views of the BLS.

Latino crew at the leading edge

crew photo cre photo close-up using all kind of dangerous tools to support a sliding shoot and get it in place.
Photos courtesy of Robert Carr

Topic Two: Major Hazards on Construction Jobs

Leading causes of work-related deaths, construction, 1992-2010

deaths line graph

Rate of leading causes of nonfatal injuries resulting in days away from work in construction, 1992-2010 (Private wage-and-salary workers)

rate line graph

Falls

Photos of workmen in danger of falling from ladders

 

Fatal falls, slips, trips in construction, by height of fall, 2011-2013 total

pie chart

Note: 133 deaths without height information were excluded.
Source: These numbers were calculated by the authors with restricted access to BLS CFOI microdata. The views expressed here do not necessarily reflect the views of the BLS.

 

Distribution of fatalities from falls in construction, by establishment size, 2008-2010 total

pie chart

Rate of fatalities from falls, selected construction occupations, 2008-2010 average (All employment)

bar graph
*This research was conducted with restricted access to Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data. 
The views expressed here do not necessarily reflect the views of the BLS.

Over half of fatal falls to a lower level in construction were from roofs and ladders, 2011-2015 (BLS)

pie chart

Source: Numbers were obtained from the BLS through special requests. Calculations by the authors.

Number of fatal falls to a lower level, selected construction subsectors, 2011-2015

bar grahp

Source: Numbers were obtained from the BLS through special requests. Calculations by the authors. The views expressed here do not necessarily reflect the views of the BLS.

What are "struck-by" hazards?

photo of a metal dangerous object suspended and moving through the air on a line.

Powder-actuated hand tools What are the hazards?
  • 37,000 people go to emergency rooms from nail gun injuries every year
  • The hazards are similar to those of firearms
  • Sequential-trip triggers could prevent 65 percent of injuries

What is wrong with this picture?

mechanical tool lying on the hand rails of a starwell

Photo courtesy Laborers-AGC

Pneumatic nailers have been made safer

  • Penetration checks must be made
  • All proper PPE must be worn

nailer and x-rays of individuals injured through their skulls.

Trenching cave-ins represent 40% of caught-in/between fatalities (2011-2015)

picture of interactive feature, "when workers die"

Dedicated to Patrick Walters-
One of over 50 workers who needlessly
die in trenching and excavation each year

pie chart for being caught or crushed in collapsing materials 52% coming from other collapsing structure or equipment, 40.7% from excavation or trenching cave-in, 4.2 from landslide, and other.

What do we know about the 542 “Patricks” who died in excavations from 1992 to 2001?

  • Average age was 38
  • Nearly half of their companies had less than 10 employees
  • Nearly all were employed by private companies
  • Cave-ins accounted for 76% of the deaths

Lifetime risk of electrocution deaths in construction, selected construction occupations (All employment)

electrocution bar graph, most deaths from power-line installers by 8 times the second most dangerous, Electrician.

Major causes of electrocution deaths in construction, electrical workers vs. non-electrical workers, 2008-2010 total (All employment)

bar graph

Topic Three: Managing and Controlling Hazards
on Construction Jobs

Prevention through Design (PtD) promotes safety, but is not used much by smaller firms (average of 2012 and 2015)

bar graph

Source: Dodge Data & Analytics, 2012 and 2015 Construction Safety Management Survey. Calculations by the authors.

CPWR’s Construction Solutions allows you to
select a line of work and specific tasks to learn the hazards

construction solutions
http://www.cpwrconstructionsolutions.org/

Controls are listed for each hazard, like stabilizers and extenders for ladders

stabilizer and extender product photos

The hierarchy of controls needs to be considered

wheel barrow powered, drywall lift, and overhead drill as functional products for safety and stability

Here is why PPE is at the bottom:

NIOSH FACE reports, fatal falls in construction, by Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) status, 1982-2014

bar graph

Source: Dong XS, Largay JA, Choi SD, Wang X, Cain CT, Romano N. 2017. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 102:136-143.

Frequency of general safety and health training, average of 2012 and 2015

pie charts

Source: Dodge Data & Analytics, 2012 and 2015 Construction
Safety Management Survey. Calculations by the authors.

Topic Four: Taking advantage of free CPWR resources

https://www.cpwr.com/

We worked with NIOSH to publish a series of toolbox talks (in English and Spanish)

charla informativa/toolbox talks

Our toolbox talks feature case studies and graphics

night shifts toolbox talk thumbnails

Our safety climate tools are widely used

safety tools

Both versions focus on 8 leading indicators and have their own activities and ideas

  1. Demonstrating Management Commitment
  2. Aligning and Integrating Safety as a Value
  3. Ensuring Accountability at All Levels
  4. Improving Supervisory Leadership
  5. Empowering and Involving Workers
  6. Improving Communication
  7. Training at All Levels
  8. Encouraging Owner/Client Involvement

Our Safety Climate Workbook contains worksheets that allow you to rate your program from inattentive to exemplary

Demonstrating Management commitment headline with critique of management

The Small Contractor version allows you to quickly assess on paper or online your company’s activities and where you need help

S-CAT worksheet for small contractors

Our Hazard Alerts are in paper and digital form in English & Spanish

Electrical safety hazard alert and alerts in english and spanish

Our electronic Library of Construction Occupational Safety and Health (eLCOSH.org) is focused on practitioners and trainers

elcosh website photo

eLCOSH has over a thousand images for your use

bad practice image showing people working on heights without safety gear

We maintain an inventory that currently contains 580 commercial construction nanomaterials

elcosh logo

Check out our other online resources & new safety and health network

stop construction falls sitechoose hand safety.org

safe construction network.orgwww.elcosh.org

Our silica resources help contractors comply (www.silica-safe.org)

siica-safe.org website

We have lots of silica resources in English and Spanish at www.cpwr.com

silica in english and spanish

Questions?

Contact Bruce Lippy
blippy@cpwr.com